What Is A Credit Term? Understanding Payment Requirements, Common Terms, Interest Rates, And Accounting Practices
September 29, 2023
Loan applications, credit card statements, and other financial documents all use their unique vocabulary. Trying to comprehend the meaning of each credit phrase can be a daunting task.
If you have a firmer grasp of such credit terminologies, you’ll have an easier time keeping tabs on your finances.
Read on to find out what is a credit term, as well as get an understanding of payment requirements, rates, and accounting practices.
Definition Of Credit Terms
Credit terms pertain to a contractual arrangement between a purchaser and a vendor. It outlines the specific amount and schedule of payments the purchaser must remit to the vendor later for goods or services they acquire.
Credit terms refer to the set payment requirements on an invoice. Providing consumers with early payment terms is a frequently seen strategy sellers utilise to expedite cash flow.
This phenomenon is particularly prevalent among organisations experiencing financial constraints or without an alternative source of financing to mitigate temporary cash deficiencies.
The credit terms that clients receive in exchange for prompt payment should be enticing enough to incentivise early payment terms. It should also ensure that the seller does not incur an excessively substantial interest cost for the early receipt of funds.
The credit terms structure entails initially specifying the duration in terms of days. Within this period, customers may avail themselves of the available early payment crediting terms subsequent to the invoice’s date.
- Net 30 days: This would mean the client must make payments in full within 30 days with no discounts.
- 2/10 Net 30: This would indicate that the customer is eligible for a 2% discount if they make payments in 10 days or can pay in 30 days for standard payment.
Common Credit Terms
Later, we will highlight a table showing the standard terms, an explanation of their meaning, and the effective interest rates offered to customers.
Broadening The Concept
The scope of credit terms is broad. It can encompass the whole arrangement governing payment transactions rather than solely focusing on the terms of prompt payments.
If indeed this is the case, the credit terms cover several topics, such as:
- The amount of credit: The provision of credit to the customer.
- Payment time Period: The temporal framework for fulfilling financial obligations.
- Early payment discounts: Terms for early payment refer to the conditions and provisions set forth by a creditor or lender that incentivise borrowers or debtors to settle their financial obligations before the agreed-upon due date.
- Late Payment Penalties: Penalties for payments one makes late.
Cost Of Credit
Knowing the formula for calculating the effective interest rate that comes with the early repayment discount terms that clients receive is vital.
This is how the formula of interest rate calculation works:
Early Payment Discount
For individuals receiving an early payment discount, subtract the payment date from the regular due date, then divide the result by 360.
Considering the 2/10 net 30 payment conditions, one would calculate the days between the invoice and payment due dates.
In this case, dividing 20 days by 360 would yield a result of 18. The quantity in question serves the purpose of annualising the interest rate calculation in the subsequent step.
Original Price Before A Discount
To calculate the original price before a discount, subtract the reduction ratio from 100% and divide the resulting value by the reduction percentage.
As an illustration, while considering the 2/10 net 30 payment terms, one might calculate the discount rate by dividing 2% by 98%, resulting in a value of 0.0204.
According to the terms of the credit, this interest rate they are offering.
Annualised Interest Rates
To determine the annualised interest rate, one must multiply the outcomes of the two calculations.
In summary, the calculation entails the multiplication of 18 by 0.0204. The effective annualised interest rate will be 36.72%.
The formula is: A reduction % x (1 – the reduction %) x (360 / (Total number of days to make a payment – reduction number of days)).
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Credit Terms Accounting
A customer who pays an invoice early receives a discount, which they record in the transaction accounting books as follows:
- Create a cash debit for the sum of money they collect
- Subtract the early payment bonus from any sales reductions
- Apply the total invoice amount to the customer’s account receivables
After this update, the invoice will no longer appear on the aged accounts receivable report as the customer has repaid the outstanding balance.
Credit Terms Table
The table below encompasses standard payment terms, their respective definitions, and the effective yearly interest rate.
|Credit Terms||Description||Effective interest|
|Net 10||Settle within 10 days||0%|
|Net 30||Settle within 30 days||0%|
|Net EOM 10||Settle within 10 days of the end of the month||0%|
|1/10 Net 30||Take 1% deduction within 10 days or settle in 30 days||18.2%|
|1/10 Net 60||Take 1% deduction within 10 days or settle in 60 days||7.3%|
|2/10 Net 30||Take 2% deduction within 10 days or settle in 30 days||36.7%|
|2/10 Net 60||Take 2% deduction within 10 days or settle in 60 days||14.7%|
Credit Term Determining Factors
Below are three credit term determining factors.
In this case, the buyer enjoys a grace period, but the credit facilities anticipate payment on or before the deadline. They usually agree in advance on the limitations on how long a transaction can take place.
Your customer’s creditworthiness will determine the amount of credit you extend to them. One can use considerations including transaction volume, ability to repay, and track record.
Variable Interest Rate
According to the quantity and credit duration, credit facilities may impose interest for the whole credit period or just the overdue portion of the period.
Tips For Credit Management
Each firm has its credit policies, so the credit you extend to one customer can be entirely different for a different consumer. Determining appropriate credit conditions is subjective and does not adhere to a definitive right or wrong standard.
The optimal approach is contingent upon the effectiveness of one’s business, oneself, and the consumer. The following will come in handy regardless of the credit conditions you offer.
Make Sure The Invoice Specifies The Credit Terms
Including credit conditions or payment terms on the invoice is an excellent idea. It monitors the payment deadline and informs the buyer accordingly.
Locate Each Client’s Credit Duration And Modify It As Necessary
It is advisable to ascertain the appropriate credit duration for each client, considering criteria such as goods, quantity, and regularity. This credit period should be the default setting inside your bookkeeping software.
It might be beneficial to establish a maximum borrowing capacity for customers depending on their creditworthiness and trustworthiness. It prevents instances of exceeding the set limit while selling products or services.
Reminder On Late Payments
Implementing an internal notification program to warn of late payments during invoicing would benefit the firm. This is mainly in cases where credit standards prohibit making additional sales to clients with outstanding debts.
When Determining The Terms Of Your Customers’ Credit, What Factors Should You Consider?
Consider these criteria before extending credit to your consumers:
- Loan default danger
- Financial Markets
- Verifying Credit
- Credit Procedures
- Qualifications for Credit
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Credit terms can amplify a business’s revenue when one effectively utilises it. However, similar to any credit procedure, it also features certain drawbacks.
Two prevalent hazards that come with engaging in credit-based business transactions are the untimely repayment of funds and the occurrence of buyer default.
To effectively issue credit to consumers, it is necessary to possess knowledge of market norms and exercise due diligence. However, it is imperative to consistently monitor and analyse shifting marketplace dynamics and potential issues with customers.